Welcome to the blog of the Tasmanian branch of the Children's Book Council of Australia!

Sunday, 12 August 2018

Inspiring STEM through Picture Books


This week we welcome NSW Teacher Librarian, Catherine Cattermole. Catherine combines two passions in her FaceBook site: Picture Book STEM. Providing students with a chance to explore Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) and using picture books as a springboard provides the ideas that fuel Catherine’s FB posts. This is National Science Week – here are some terrific ideas to delve into science through literature - including some CBCA shortlisted titles.


I believe picture books are one of the most beautiful tools in teaching. The connections that students can make with characters, the ability to visit new places, to see things from other perspectives and the lessons in understanding new concepts are invaluable. When students connect with characters, and develop some feeling of empathy or sympathy for them, they are so much more involved in the story. Most good picture books have at least one problem within them. And when students have a relationship with these characters, they also have a desire to help.

Picture Book Stem logo  ©
Over the past few years I have developed a procedure for using picture books to inspire STEM activities. Just like a STEM design, it has been tested, evaluated, rebuilt and tested all over again. These lessons became such a positive part of my teaching day, that, at my next District Library Committee meeting, I offered to host a picture book inspired STEM afternoon at my school.  The wonderfully supportive PMBW committee was happy to share the fun. During this afternoon, I provided a variety of resources and realised how enthusiastic other teacher-librarians were about the whole process. I then wondered if other teachers may find my resources useful, and decided to share this information through a page on Facebook.

This is when Picture Book STEM really began. So what is the purpose of my page? The purpose is to share free, tested, hopefully valuable, resources with teachers. Teachers already commit so much to their students, that to lessen their load with a free resource is essential. I hope to help make it easier for teachers to give students incredible opportunities, while supporting them with structure.

I began by reading about STEM activities and finding books where characters could be assisted through an activity to assist in solving their problem. Now when I read a picture book, all of those problems become inspiration to find a solution. And it is so wonderful to see students making decisions to help others. The invaluable communication, collaboration and creative development in these lessons is invaluable. This is also evident in the students’ renewed love of picture books.
I always do two copies of a challenge - one is for students to recognise problems and come up with their own designs. The second has the activities written on them for teachers to use as a guide if they wish. I have had people tell me they need ideas, and then others tell me I shouldn’t be giving ideas! So now I do both :)

Catherine Cattermole
Catherine works at James Erskine Public School in Western Sydney where she has worked as the teacher librarian since 2009. Previously, Catherine was a classroom teacher for 19 years before retraining as a teacher librarian.FB: Picture Book STEM

Saturday, 4 August 2018

Fern Martins - illustrator


Inspired by Fern Martin’s stunning illustrations in Big Fella Rain, Maureen Mann set out to discover more about this indigenous artist who is also the director of the InhertianceArtDesign Studio.
When I was preparing my recent blog on books about rain, I came across some wonderful illustrations by Fern Martins in a book called Big Fella Rain. In this title she captures, using watercolour, the wetness of the landscape during the rains with some of the animals portrayed in the Aboriginal dot painting technique. Take a closer look at illustrations from various titles on the illustrations page of Fern's website.
Having enjoyed this title of Fern’s so much I decided to explore some of her other titles, hoping that her other illustrations spoke to me as successfully. She has co-authored all her stories with indigenous authors from various parts of the country. Fern is a descendant of the Ngarabul people from northern NSW and the Waki Waki of southern Queensland, and was a co-founder in 1988 of Boomalli, the Sydney Aboriginal Artists Collective.
Spotty Dotty Lady written by Josie Boyle, published by Magabala, 2014.

The lonely main character, in response to a mysterious plant growing in her garden, paints dots over everything to such an extent that she involves her neighbourhood in the process, demonstrating the transformative power of nature and friendship. The watercolour illustrations become increasingly vibrant through the book, using varying perspectives, making the ordinary extraordinary, as are the pictures.
Bubbay written by Josie Wowalla Boyle, published by Magabala, 2012.

Jack watched the goats alone and lonely, occasionally swapping milk for eggs with Mrs Timms. At Christmas he wants to be a part of a family and a quest presents itself: to decorate a magical tree with specific items. Happy ever after … Fern’s bright primary colours are so different from the palette in Spotty Dotty Lady. She portrays Jack and Mrs Timms as ‘real’ people, and there are lots of details about Australian plants and animals.
There are three titles in the Indij Readers collection, all published in 2012, brief retellings of traditional tales from differing parts of Australia. There does not appear to have been as much graphic crafting as for her other books, but that is understandable in brief readers. Haunted Billabong by Clarry Smith; the amusing Goanna, Rising out of the Ashes and Southern Cross the latter two written by Beryl Philip-Carmichael. In each, Fern has a visual focus on the characters, creating individuals while also being able to suggest the landscape backgrounds.
Bold Australian Girl written by Jess Black published by Scholastic, 2017.

For me, this is one of Fern’s less successful books from an artistic point of view, but her drawings complement the strong story of a nurturing relationship between an indigenous mother and daughter.  The relationship is loving, set within a recognisable Australian landscapes as the girl dreams that her future can be whatever she wants, but the figures are stilted.
The Toast Tree written by Corina Martin, published by Magabala, 2015. 
Set in a small dusty town surrounded by the sea, Fern’s illustrations compare earth colours with the brightness of the sea. Grandpa’s imaginary toast tree fires the minds of the two girls and through the illustrations we see details which the verbal text does not supply. What the tree looks like, Grandpa’s days fishing, the magic in a child’s imagination.
In all the books listed, Fern’s extensive use of colour and careful placement on the page is strong and thoughtful, and though I think I read the best one first, there is much to revisit in the other titles. I look forward to exploring future publications.
For a wider exploration of Fern Martin’ artwork, visit her website InheritanceArtDesign
Do you have a favourite children’s book illustrator? Why not share in the comments section.
Maureen Mann
Retired teacher librarian and avid reader


Saturday, 28 July 2018

Little People in Fur Coats

Join Lyndon as he considers the underlying inspiration in his current writing that is drawn from animals and the long-held tradition of applying human characteristics to our 'furry' friends. Meet Walter the wombat along with some other familiar characters.

My mother once gave my nan a fridge magnet that stated, “Animals are little people in fur coats.” I think about this as I fill the car with two weeks of food, then drive the winding, wet roads to Cradle Mountain. Thanks to the generosity and kindness of Arts Tasmania and the Tasmanian Parks and Wildlife Service, I am spending the two weeks of school holidays up here as an artist in residence inside the national park.

The project is a new book called Wombat Overland. It’s a novel about an old wombat who leaves his burrow one night to discover another of his kind has died in the snow, with a joey still inside her pouch. The only thing she carries is a map to Lake St Clair, with a big red circle at the end of the lake and the word ‘home’ written next to it. He decides to make the long journey to take the child back to its family—a book in which the chapters sequentially match the real-life locations of walkers who take on the track. Yet in writing a story like this, the obvious question arises: How human should my animals be?

Certainly, children’s literature has a long and well-loved history of personification. The boot of my car is filled with wonderful examples to accompany me on a sabbatical of two weeks without phone or internet. There are surprises, though. Who would have thought, given the recent backlash to the cinematic version of Peter Rabbit and his friends throwing blackberries at the allergic Tom McGregor (who even has to pull out his epi-pen in order to recover), that Beatrix Potter’s The Tale of Mr. Tod might include a badger throwing a hot pot of tea in a fox’s face? In Kenneth Graeme’s gorgeous The Wind in the Willows what is animal and what is human is incredibly murky: Mole has a bust of Queen Victoria in his garden—not a mole version, but the human one, at least according to the original illustrations—and Mr. Toad easily swaps clothes with a human washerwoman, drives a car, and rides a horse!

It is fascinating to watch writers make their various decisions. Ruth Park’s Muddle-Headed Wombat (far more affable and lovable than my own version) is identified by the pronoun he, and Tabby the cat as she, while poor old mouse is relegated to the land of it. Dorothy Wall was apparently quite happy to have good ol’ Blinky Bill join the army in an act of patriotism, even if her publisher encouraged her to rip up the first draft and include Blinky as a mascot, rather than an actual solider. Richard Adams’s Watership Down is a little truer to life in its portrayal of animals, yet has as much bloodshed and sadness as any epic tale. Wings of Fire. All effective, all wildly different. Looking at some more modern work, I had great fun with the ‘cheesy’ puns of the Geronimo Stilton series, and the reptilian action and
adventure of Tui T. Sutherland’s

My brother once told me that if you want to sell a children’s book it should be about fairies or food. I’d add that talking animals couldn’t be too far behind. This isn’t about selling a product, though, it’s about telling a story of love. I love animals acting like people. For my own part, Walter the wombat appears in my mind, in his burrow, in a form that cannot be contested: wrapped up tight in a green coat by the fire with round glasses, holding a photo album in the shape of a leaf and one paw, and a cup of tea in the other.

I can’t help it. After all, he’s not just a wombat. He’s a little person in a fur coat.

Go on, tell me your favourite books from childhood with personified animals in the comments below.

Lyndon Riggall

Lyndon Riggall is a writer and teacher intern at Launceston College. You can find him on Twitter @lyndonriggall or at http://lyndonriggall.com. Lyndon will be moderating a number of sessions at the Tamar Valley Writers Festival (https://www.tamarvalleywritersfestival.com.au/) from the 14th to the 16th of September 2018.

Editor's note: I did enjoy Lyndon's closing image of Walter and it instantly brought to mind sharing a cup of tea with Mr Tumnus in The Lion, the Witch and Wardrobe - does a faun count as a furry friend?

Saturday, 21 July 2018

May Gibbs Creative Time Fellowship


This week, Tasmanian author, Julie Hunt, provides a window into her current projects to expand on the ideas presented in KidGlovz. She includes stunning first sketches from the illustrator, Dale Newman, as a foretaste of what is to come. While we wait for these tales to be completed and published, you might like to dip into her newly released title Shine Mountain and revisit the post celebrating the launch of KidGlovz.

I was lucky enough to spend the month of June in sunny Brisbane, courtesy of the May Gibbs Children’s Literature Trust. What a marvellous organisation that is! The trust has three residences, in Canberra, Brisbane and Adelaide and each city hosts two children’s book creators for a month every year. The idea is to support writers and artists by allowing us to spend dedicated time on our projects.

I worked on two books during my Creative Time Fellowship, both adventure fantasy stories for 8–12 year olds and both companion books to my graphic novel KidGlovz, illustrated by Dale Newman. KidGlovz is the story of a musical prodigy, a young boy who learns that much of his talent comes from the pair of gloves he believes he was born wearing. The gloves have the power to amplify whatever qualities are in the person who puts them on. In the next book they appear on the hands of Kid’s best friend, a thief called Shoestring and they enable him to steal impossible things – hopes, dreams, and even somebody’s mind.

Shoestring – the Boy who Walks on Air was conceived as a hybrid novel, part graphic panels and part prose and during my fellowship I worked on a near final draft of the manuscript. My editor at Allen & Unwin had returned the text with suggestions for refining the plot and developing Shoestring’s character. I did this while looking at Dale’s fabulous roughs. Here’s Shoestring with the arch villain, Mistress Adamantine, better known ‘Marm’.


Collaborating with an artist has got to be one of the delights of writing for children! Whenever an email from Dale arrives I dive for the attachment. Here’s one of the settings for the book Mt Adamantine, the crater of an extinct volcano. No prizes for guessing who lives there.

Shoestring – the Boy who Walks on Air, will be published next year. I can’t wait to see the finished artwork.

I spent the second part of my fellowship exploring ideas for the third and final story in the series which has the working title of Sylvie and the House of Fabio Sham. Sylvie is a young girl with a prodigious memory and a quick and curious mind. When the gloves appear on her hands she finds there’s nothing she can’t learn. But sometimes a child can know too much. When Sylvie discovers the secret of life – how to conjure things into existence – she finds herself in trouble. If Sylvie can create life she can take it as well and for a seven-year-old girl this has disastrous consequences.

Many thanks to the May Gibbs Children’s Literature Trust for the hospitality and the generous gift of time. Visit the website for more information about the trust.


Julie Hunt
Tasmanian children’s author
Just released: Shine Mountain


Saturday, 14 July 2018

Lift the flap and discover a magical staircase

Jennie has recently returned from her travels and some wonderful book and bookshop experiences. Join her adventures at La Alhambra in Granada and the Livrario Lello in Porto.

First up, the bookshop industry is alive and very healthy in southern Europe. A similar situation was reported on my last sojourn ('Spot'light on Italy) and we visited many bookshops on my recent trip to southern Spain and Portugal. Spanish tourist publications for children were of particular note - with books on major sites translated into different languages with highly engaging formats, illustrations and information for children (and elders :-) to buy as a memento to take home.

View of Sierra Nevada from La Alhanbra
A visit to the breathtakingly beautiful La Alhambra, perched on a rocky outcrop overlooking Granada in the foothills of the Sierra Nevada (snowcapped) mountains shaped our itinerary for Andalucia and we were very impressed with the range of books on this historic site, and couldn't resist a lift the flap version to
add to the oh-so-small suitcase. 📕
Double page spread of
La Alcazaba (the fortress)












A visit to the Livraria Lello in Porto, Portugal, ranked as one of the top ten bookstores in the world, was an amazing experience in all ways. First up, you can't just walk in - there are too many people. Head next door to buy a ticket, leave your bag in a locker and then queue for entry. Fight your way through the crowds to look at books and.... climb the magical staircase. Famed for inspiring J. K. Rowling in her design of the moving staircase in
Hogwarts. But don't be fooled - this beautiful staircase is not wooden, but made of plaster and carefully hand coloured and painted to look like wood - I got the inside story during a visit to the Palacia da Bolsa where plaster is used to simulate wood, marble and stonework - very convincingly. This is an age-old Portuguese craft.

But I meander - a picture or two is worth a thousand words. Check out the staircase, stained glass ceiling and the people!


And in spite of the crowds, the service was superb. The Lello bookshop could not meet my search for a Portuguese edition of Spot, (stay tuned for that story later in the year) but they had many other translations of quality writers in the field - Australian, English and American. The sales assistant  morphed into a manager and we discussed the local trade and she shared a number of works from Portuguese writers and illustrators including some award winners from recent Bologna trade fairs. Her favourite was Ana Luisa Carapinheiro and there is an interesting interview to read to find out about this young and successful Portuguese author.

Every bookshop we entered had a children's section, some  extremely large and decked out as engaging reading spaces with sunken floors and bright colours. Most had the typical cheaper productions of fairy tales and classics and series fiction targeting primary age students, but there was always more - in English and Portuguese - displayed appealingly and begging to be read. The morbid, macabre and dangerous themes are just as popular with teen readers as they are in Australia.

One reason for the fairytales was the fact that Hans Christian Andersen frequented Andalucia and there is a very 'serious' bronze statue in Malaga - with a cheeky ugly duckling peeking out of his briefcase.

Jennie Bales
Dabbles in books, blogs and book depositories (AKA libraries)

Sunday, 8 July 2018

Non Stereotypical Children’s Literature



This week Felicity delves into literature that explores differences, from behavioural and physical, to more topical issues around gender identity. There is certainly a book to fit every reader.

In the past, non-stereotypical children’s literature was most likely to be focused on behaviours or physical characteristics associated with males and females: think The Story of Ferdinand (Munro Leaf/Robert Lawson), The Paper Bag Princess (Robert Munsch/Michael Martchenko) and Crusher is Coming (Bob Graham).

In recent times, the above focus remains, but books about gender stereotypes are becoming more mainstream. It’s hard to believe that it is ten years since And Tango Makes Three (Justin Richardson and Peter Parnell/Henry Cole) about two male penguins, in the New York City Central Park Zoo, who hatched and raised a chick, was published and created a media storm. Red: A crayon’s story (Michael Hall) is also about identity: a blue crayon with a red label that struggles to meet expectations, until being given the permission to be himself.

The Rainbow Book List has been published since 2008. A committee consisting of the Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Round Table (GLBTRT) and the Social Responsibilities Round Table (SRRT) of the American Library Association (ALA) review titles published in the previous 18 months, and select “quality books with significant and authentic GLBTQ content, which are recommended for people from birth through to eighteen years of age.” (Rainbow Book List, 2018). This provides a good source of books to inform your reading journey.

Many books in this genre (assuming this is an inclusive word to use in this context) have been written by a person with a close association with a gender diverse family member. Alex Gino, one such author, wrote George, the book that as a child, she would like to have been able to read. Carolyn Mackler, a young-adult novelist who lives in Manhattan, gave a copy of George to her 10-year-old son to read. She told him that it was about a transgender child and explained what that meant. After he read it, she asked him what he thought. “I said, ‘If you met George, would you be friends with him?’ ” she recalled. “And he said, ‘Mom, it’s her, and I would be friends with her if she was nice’.”

In the same article, Sam Martin says; “I never saw people like me in movies or books.” (Alter, 2018) These sentiments are echoed by Hannah Gadsby in Nanette (Netflix) when she talks about the introduction to ‘her people’ being the Mardi Gras, and them being ‘busy’. Readers deserve a greater range of gender diverse characters to illustrate what it is to be non-cisgender in our 21st Century world.

You probably have titles on your bookshelves, with gender diverse characters, existing alongside cisgender characters: Captain Underpants (Dav Pilkey), The Perks of Being a Wallflower (Stephen Chobsky) and Better Nate than Ever (Tim Federle).
Australian titles you may wish to explore are The Gender Fairy and A House for Everyone by Jo Hirst, where pronouns such as he, she and they are used, dependent on how the child identifies.

References
Alter, A. (2018). Transgenderchildren’s books fill a void and break a taboo. NYtimes.com.
Rainbow Book List. (2018). Rainbow Book Lists

Feleicty Sly
Teacher Librarian at Don College, Devonport and Treasurer of CBCA Tasmania.

Editor's note: Similar to Rainbow book lists, Australian LGBTQYA covers Australian transgender publications for teenagers.

Saturday, 30 June 2018

Schoolwide Daily Reading

An exemplary model of practice in the essential teaching of and exposure to reading in both primary and secondary school, and sources of inspiration in keeping reading ever fresh and new…

 Learning to read is a fundamental part of every child’s education, but helping children develop a desire to read and laying the foundations of a life-long reading habit are arguably just as important. As Ray Bradbury is often quoted as saying “You don’t have to burn books to destroy a culture. Just get people to stop reading them.” (Brainyquotes 2018)

So how do we encourage our students to read because they want to, not because they’re forced to?

One strategy is to allow them, within reason, to read what they want to. Stephen Krashen and Joanne Ujuiie (2005) tell us “Junk food is bad for you. Junk reading is good for you”, and Krashen (2015, p. 2) makes a compelling case that “Free voluntary… self-selected reading, generally fiction, of material of great interest to the reader...does not bring the reader to the highest levels of literacy development, but it provides the competence and knowledge that makes reading at the next stage more comprehensible.”

Another way is to help them see what choices they have by keeping books and reading visible. We can immerse them in a print-rich environment, hold book-related events and celebrations, host author visits, promote different genres, regularly read aloud to them, and make book reviews and recommendations easy to find.

The third element, of vital importance, is giving them time to read for pleasure, by ensuring that a class-based, sustained silent reading time is included as an essential part of every school day. Jim Trelease (2013), author of the bestselling Read Aloud Handbook, highlights the value of volume in the reading equation (p. 27). “The more you read, the better you get, the better you get, the more you like it; and the more you like it, the more you do it”.

We can be vocal in highlighting the importance of daily sustained silent reading in developing the next generation of readers and deep thinkers. We can strive to provide our students with as large and wide a range of reading resources as our budgets will allow. We can help keep class teachers up-to-date on what is available so they can use their knowledge of individual students’ interests to match them with books they are most likely to want to read. We can let our students see how much we value reading by sitting and reading our own book alongside them.

In the High School at The Friends’ School, our English Faculty teachers have committed to starting every English class with 15 - 20 minutes of silent reading.  Students choose their own book or magazine and have settled in well to this quiet start to their lessons.

In our Primary School, every Prep - Year 6 class spends 15-20 minutes each day on silent reading, at a time of the teacher’s choice. In most cases and within reason, students are allowed to read what they want - fiction picture books, novels, ebooks, non-fiction, magazines, comics etc. In some classes each student has a book box with a range of self-selected reading materials that they choose from each day. Other classes have a wide range of library materials and books from the teacher’s own collection in the classroom, and in every class, students also have access to the books they have borrowed in their library lesson or books they have brought from home.

Thanks for reading our thoughts.

Sharon Molnar and Katie Stanley
(Teacher Librarians, The Friends’ School)

References

Brainyquotes.com n.d., Ray Bradbury Quotes, accessed 23 June 2018

Krashen, S & Ujiie, J 2005, ‘Junk food is bad for you but junk reading is good for you’, International Journal of Foreign Language Teaching, vol. 1, no. 3, Summer 2005, accessed 23 June 2018,

Krashen, S 2015, ‘Fact or fiction? The plot thickens’, Language Magazine, vol. 15, no. 3, 1 November 2015, accessed 23 June 2018

Trelease, J 2013, The Read-Aloud Handbook, 7th edn, Penguin, New York. (latest edition)


You might like to read these:

Carr, N 2011, The Shallows – What the Internet Is Doing to Our Brains, W. W. Norton & Company, New York.

Krashen, S, Lee, S & Lao, C 2018, Comprehensible and compelling: the causes and effects of free voluntary reading, Libraries Unlimited, Santa Barbara, USA.

Miller, D 2009, The book whisperer: awakening the inner reader in every child, Jossey Bass, San Francisco.

Miller, D & Kelley, S 2014, Reading in the wild: the book whisperer's keys to cultivating lifelong reading habits, Jossey Bass, San Francisco.


Ross, K, Mckechnie, L & Rothbauer, P 2006, Reading matters, Libraries Unlimited, Westport, USA.






Saturday, 23 June 2018

Humour and the Modern Teenager

This week Leanne Rands looks at the lighter side of Young Adult fiction, in Humour and the Modern Teenager from three different perspectives …

Humour can help teenagers navigate life, which is not always easy, simple, or straight-forward. Books that reflect this struggle can indirectly support teenagers as they come to terms with the sensitive issues that concern them, especially those that are too emotionally stressful to deal with directly.
Teenagers enjoy stories that involve sarcasm and sexual references, as nothing is sacred when enjoying a good laugh found in a book. In fiction as in real life, humour can provide the glue for maintaining and developing friendships, empathising with people who live other lives, and providing the opportunity to be honest and outrageous together. The most popular stories reflect the accurate observations of teenager behaviour, attitudes and conversations, often featuring offbeat characters and funny situations, sarcastic or witty dialogue, and a tone of humorous but angst-filled desperation which teenagers appreciate. I have selected 3 examples of humorous books for teenagers.

Beauty Queens Libba Bray
When a plane crashes on a desert island thirteen teen beauty contestants headed for the Miss Teen Dream Pageant are stranded. These ‘princesses’ have to struggle to survive and combat the island’s diabolical inhabitants by working together despite their fierce competitiveness. Even though they have very little food and water, no access to the internet and are fast running out of make-up, they focus on practicing their dance routines in case they are rescued in time for the competition.  The book is a wickedly satirical humorous look at beauty pageants, reality television and teen pop culture as the glamourous castaways journey into the heart of non-exfoliated darkness.

An Abundance of Katherines John Green
Katherine V thought boys were gross
Katherine X just wanted to be friends
Katherine XVIII dumped him in an e-mail
K-19 broke his heart
When it comes to relationships, Colin Singleton's type happens to be girls named Katherine who all dump him. In the wake of this debacle Colin, an anagram-obsessed child prodigy sets off on a road trip with his obese Judge Judy loving friend Hassan. With 10,000 dollars in his pocket and a feral hog on his trail, Colin is on a mission to prove a mathematical theorem he hopes will predict how long a relationship will last and demonstrate his genius. The experience challenges and changes Colin’s views on love, relationships and life as he realizes that his theory can only reveal the past because the future is unpredictable and dynamic. 

Guy Langman, Crime Scene Procrastinator Josh Berk
Sixteen-year-old Guy, grieving his father’s death, joins a school Forensics Club hoping to find out about his father’s past and meet ‘hot’ girls. Overshadowed by his charismatic father, Guy had become an underachiever with a class clown persona. When he meets Maureen, an ambitious Goth girl, and finds a dead body he and the club members investigate and uncover a secret from his father’s past. This is a sardonic narrative with wisecracking humour, teenager insecurity and hilarious banter between Guy and best friends Anoop and Maureen.

There's no life without humour. It can make the wonderful moments of life truly glorious, and it can make tragic moments bearable.                                                                       Rufus Wainwright

Leanne Rands                                                                                                                 
President CBCA Tasmania

References
Ebscohost.com. (2018). Looking for a Good Laugh: Humor in Teen Fiction | NoveList | EBSCOhost. [online] Available at: https://www.ebscohost.com/novelist/novelist-special/201403-looking-for-a-good-laugh-humor-in-teen-fiction [Accessed 8 Feb. 2018].

View all posts Lawrence Kutner, P. (2018). Humor As a Key to Child Development | Psych Central. [online] Psych Central. Available at: https://psychcentral.com/lib/humor-as-a-key-to-child-development/ [Accessed 8 Feb. 2018].